Earliest Chess Games by Bill Wall

(original found here)

Here are some of the earliest chess games known.

The earliest chess game seems to be the following:

Castellvi - Vinoles, Barcelona 1490
1.e4 d5 2.exd5 Qxd5 3.Nc3 Qd8 4.Bc4 Nf6 5.Nf3 Bg4 6.h3 Bxf3 7.Qxf3 e6? [7...Nc6] 8.Qxb7 Nbd7 9.Nb5 Rc8? [9...Bd6] 10.Nxa7 Nb6 11.Nxc8 Nxc8 12.d4 and White wins and mates in 21 moves

The next game is between Ruy Lopez de Segura and Giovanni Leonardo di Bona. Lopez was a Spanish priest who came to Rome in 1559 for the accession of Pope Pius IV.

Lopez - Leonardo, Rome 1560
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 f6?! 3.Nxe5 fxe5? [3...Qe7] 4.Qh5+ g6 5.Qxe5+ Qe7 6.Qxh8 Nf6 7.d4 Kf7 8.Bc4+ and White won.

Lopez later played and lost to Leonardo and Boi in 1575 at Madrid. It was the first documented chess competition. Only the opening is known between Leonardo and Lopez

Leonardo - Lopez, Madrid 1575
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.b4 Bb6 6.a4 a6 7.Ba3 d6 8.d3 Nf6 9.Qe2 Bg4 10.Nbd2

Leonardo - Lopez, Madrid 1575
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 d6 3.Bc4 f5 4.d3 Be7 5.Qe2 c6 6.h3 f4 7.g3 fxg3 8.fxg3 and Leonardo went on to win.

The next game comes from Rome. It is an interesting miniature.

Busnardo - Unknown, Rome 1590
1.e4 e5 2.Nf3 Nc6 3.Bc4 Bc5 4.c3 Qe7 5.O-O d6 6.d4 Bb6 7.Bg5 f6 8.Bh4 g5 9.Nxg5 fxg5 10.Qh5+ Kd7 11.Bxg5 Qg7?? [11...Nf6] 12.Be6+ Kxe6 13.Qe8+ Nge7 13.d5 mate 1-0

In 1600 Gioacchino Greco was born in Calabria. At Rome in 1619 he compiled a manuscript on openings for several wealthy patrons. In 1623 he put together another manuscript of complete games to illustrate his openings. The games are probably ficticious.

In 1680 Caze recorded chess games played by the best Paris players. Here are a few games, all King's Gambits.

Abbe de Lionne and Morant - Auzout and Maubisson, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Bc3 Qh4+ 4.Kf1 g5 5.Qf3 Bc5 6.g3 Qh6 7.Ne2 Nc6 8.gxf4 Qf6 9.Qb3 d6 10.d3 Bb6 11.Nbc3 Bh3+ 12.Ke1 Nd4 13.Nxd4 Qxd4 14.Nd1 O-O-O 15.Be3 Qf6 16.Bxb6 cxb6 17.f5 Nh6 18.Nc3 Rhe8 19.Kd2 Qd4 20.Rae1 Ng4 21.Kc1 f6? [21...Qf2] 22.Qa4 a6?? 23.Be6+ Rxe6 24.Qxd4 1-0

Lionne and Morant - Auzout and Maubisson, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.h4 Be7 4.Qg4 d5 5.Qxf4 dxe4 6.Qxe4 Nf6 7.Qa4+ c6 8.d3 O-O 9.Bf4 Re8 10.Be2 Na6 11.c4? Bb4+ 12.Kf1 Qd4 13.Bd2 Bc5 14.Be1 Bg4 [14...Nd5!] 15.Nc3 Re5 16.Nf3 Bxf3 17.gxf3 Rae8 18.Qd1 Nh5 19.Ne4 Bb6 20.Bc3 Ng3+ 21.Kg2 Qe3 22.Kxg3 Rxe4 23.dxe4 Rxe4 24.Qd3?? [24.Kh3] Qf2+ 25.Kh3 Rxh4 mate 0-1

Morant - Abbe de Feuquieres, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 Ne7 4.d4 g5 5.Nxg5 Ng6 6.h4 Bg7 7.Bc4 O-O? 8.Qh5 h6 9.Qxg6! hxg5 10.hxg5 1-0

Jannisson and Morant - Pennautier and Maubisson, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Bc4 Qh4+ 4.Kf1 g5 5.d4 d6 6.Nf3 Qh5 7.Nc3 Ne7 8.e5 Nf5 9.Nd5 Be7 10.Kg1 Bd8 11.Qe1 O-O 12.exd6 Nxd6 13.Be2 Bg4 14.b3 Bxf3 15.Bxf3 g4 16.Be4 Bh4 17.Qe2 Nc6 18.Bxf4? [18.Nxf4] Nxe4 19.Qxe4 Rae8 20.Be5 Nxe5 21.dxe5 Rxe5 0-1

De Villette Murcey - Maubisson, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.Bxf7+ Kxf7 6.Ne5+ Ke8 7.Qxg4 Nf6 8.Qxf4 d6 9.O-O Bg7 10.Nc3 Nc6 11.O-O Bg7 12.d3 Rf8 13.Qg5 Be6 14.Ne3 Kd7 15.Bd2 Rae8 16.Ncd5 Bxd5 17.exd5 Ne5? [17...Nd4] 18.Nf5 Qf7 19.Nxg7 Re7 20.Qf5+ Kd8 21.Ne6+ Ke8 22.Nxf8 Kxf8 23.Qxf6 and wins 1-0

Lafon l'aisne - Maubisson, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 Bg7 5.h4 h6 6.hxg5 hxg5 7.Rxh8 Bxh8 8.d4 Qe7 9.Qd3 Nc6 10.c3 d6 11.Bb5 Bd7 12.Bxc6? [12.d5] Bxc6 13.d5 Bd7 14.Nd4 Bxd4 15.Qxd4 f5 16.Nd2 Nf6 17.Kf1 fxe4 and Black wins 0-1

Lafon le jeune - Roussereau, Paris 1680
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.h4 g4 5.Ne5 h5 6.Bc4 Nh6 7.d4 d6 8.Nd3 Qe7 9.Nc3 Nf5 10.Bxf4 Nxh4 11.Qd2 Ng6 12.O-O-O c6 13.Rhf1 Be6 14.Bg5 Qxg5 15.Qxg5 Bh6 16.Qxh6 Rxh6 17.Bxe6 fxe6 18.Rf6 Kd7? [18...Ke7] 19.Nf4 Nxf4 20.Rxh6 1-0

It would be over 100 years before another recorded chess game could be found. In 1783 Philidor, at age 57, played the following game blindfolded while playing two other games blindfolded.

John Bruhl - Philidor, London 1783
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 c6 3.Qe2 d6 4.c3 f5 5.d3 Nf6 6.exf5 Bxf5 7.d4 e4 8.Bg5 d5 9.Bb3 Bd6 10.Nd2 Nbd7 11.h3 h6 12.Be3 Qe7 13.f4 h5 14.c4 a6 15.cxd5 cxd5 16.Qf2 O-O 17.Ne2 b5 18.O-O Nb6 19.Ng3 g6 20.Rac1 Nc4 21.Nxf5 gxf5 22.Qg3+ Qg7 23.Qxg7+ Kxg7 24.Bxc4 bxc4 25.g3 Rab8 26.b3 Ba3 27.Rc2 cxb3 28.axb3 Rfc8 29.Rxc8 Rxc8 30.Ra1 Bb4 31.Rxa6 Rc3 32.Kf2 Rd3 33.Ra2 Bxd2 34.Rxd2 Rxb3 35.Rc2 h4 36.Rc7+ Kg6 37.gxh4 Nh5 38.Rd7 [38.Rc6] Nxf4 39.Bxf4 Rf3+ 40.Kg2 Rxf4 41.Rxd5 Rf3 42.Rd8 Rd3 43.d4 f4 44.d6 Rd2+ 45.Kf1 Kf7 46.h5 e3 47.h6?? [47.Rd7] f3 [threatening 48...Rd1 mate] 0-1

Bowdler - H. Conway, London 1788
1.e4 e5 2,Bc4 Bc5 3.d3 c6 4.Qe2 d6 5.f4 exf4 6.Bxf4 Qb6 7.Qf3? [7.c3] Qxb2 8.Bxf7+ Kd7 9.Ne2 Qxa1 10.Kd2 Bb4+ 11.Nbc3 Bxc3+ 12.Nxc3 Qxh1 13.Qg4+ Kc7 14.Qxg7 Nd7 15.Qg3 b6 [15...Nf6] 16.Nb5+ cxb5 17.Bxd6+ Kb7 18.Bd5+ Ka6 19.d4 b4 20.Bxb4 Kb5?? [20...Qf1] 21.c4+ Kxb4 22.Qb3+ Ka5 23.Qb5 mate 1-0

Smith - Philidor, London 1790
1.e4 e5 2.Bc4 Nf6 3.d3 c6 4.Bg5 h6 5.Bxf6 Qxf6 6.Nc3 b5 7.Bb3 a5 8.a3 Bc5 9.Nf3 d6 10.Qd2 Be6 11.Bxe6 fxe6 12.O-O g5 13.h3 Nd7 14.Nh2 h5 15.g3 Ke7 16.Kg2 d5 17.f3 Nf8 18.Ne2 Ng6 19.c3 Rag8 20.d4 Bb6 21.dxe5 Qxe5 22.Nd4 Kd7 23.Rae1 h4 24.Qf2? [24.f4] Bc7 [24...hxg3! 25.Qxg3 Nh4+ 26.Kf2 Bxd4] 25.Ne2? [25.exd5] hxg3 26.Qxg3 Qxg3+ 27.Nxg3 Nf4+ 28.Kh1 Rxh3 29.Rg1 Rxh2+ 30.Kxh2 Rh8+ 31.Nh5 Rxh5+ 32.Kg3 Nh3+ 33.Kg4?? [33.Kg2] Rh4 mate 0-1

George Atwood - Harrowby, London 1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.d4 gxf3 6.Qxf3 Qf6 7.e5 Qc6 8.Bd5 Qxc2 9.Bxb7? [9.Nc3] Bb4+ 10.Kf1 Qc4+ 11.Kf2 Qxd4+ 12.Kf1 Qc4+ 13.Kf2 Bc5+ and Black wins 0-1

J. Wilson - Atwood, London 1795
1.e4 e5 2.f4 exf4 3.Nf3 g5 4.Bc4 g4 5.O-O gxf3 6.Qxf3 Qf6 7.c3 Nc6 8.d4 Nxd4 9.Bxf7+ Qxf7 10.cxd4 Bh6 11.Nc3 Ne7 12.e5 c6 13.Ne4 d5?? [13...O-O] 14.Nd6+ 1-0

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